Useful Linux Mint and Ubuntu Terminal Codes

Learn How to Use Linux, Linux Mint Cinnamon 20 Bootable 8GB USB Flash Drive - Includes Boot Repair and Install Guide

I have only recently begun memorizing useful Linux terminal (command line) codes. Instead of keeping my list of useful terminal codes in Google Drive, I decided to share them with you.

Batch Replacing Text in Multiple Files

Some of these include recursive text replacement in subdirectories. I'm only researching this right now and this is not tested. I am not responsible for damage to your computer or loss of files

The example below uses grep to recursively find files.

grep -rli 'old-word' * | xargs -i@ sed -i 's/old-word/new-word/g' @

Command breakdown

grep -r: --recursive, recursively read all files under each directory.

grep -l: --print-with-matches, prints the name of each file that has a match, instead of printing matching lines.

grep -i: --ignore-case.

xargs: transform the STDIN to arguments, follow this answer.

xargs -i@ ~command contains @~: a placeholder for the argument to be used in a specific position in the ~command~, the @ sign is a placeholder which could replaced by any string.

sed -i: edit files in place, without backups.

sed s/regexp/replacement/: substitute string matching regexp with replacement.

sed s/regexp/replacement/g: global, make the substitution for each match instead of only the first match.

This is the bash script I ended up using

It's a mess but it worked




find . -type f -name "*.*" -exec sed -i 's,'"$SRC"','"$DST"',' {} ;

find . -type f -exec sed -i 's+' {} +

find . -type f -exec sed -i 's+' {} 

Updating Linux Mint

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

Installing Brave Internet Browser On Linux Mint

  sudo apt install apt-transport-https curl

sudo curl -fsSLo /usr/share/keyrings/brave-browser-archive-keyring.gpg

echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/brave-browser-archive-keyring.gpg arch=amd64] stable main"|sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/brave-browser-release.list

sudo apt update

sudo apt install brave-browser

I just memorized this code and wanted to share. This will make your htdoc folder for XAMPP writeable. I found this as I was working on my first computer-based local website.

sudo chmod 777 -R /opt/lampp/htdocs/

If you're having trouble getting Apache Web Server to start

sudo systemctl stop nginx

I don't remember where I saved these bash commands from. I've seen websites come and go so I tend to save things with copy and paste to my Google Drive. Don't worry though. I use this website for my in home computer, cell phone and tablet tutoring and troubleshooting business. So this website is here to stay. Bookmark it and check back often. Follow me on Twitter to subscribe.

An A-Z Index of the Bash command line for Linux.

alias Create an alias •

apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k)

apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)

aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)

aspell Spell Checker

awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index


basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames

bash GNU Bourne-Again SHell

bc Arbitrary precision calculator language

bg Send to background

break Exit from a loop •

builtin Run a shell builtin

bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)


cal Display a calendar

case Conditionally perform a command

cat Concatenate and print (display) the content of files

cd Change Directory

cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux

chgrp Change group ownership

chmod Change access permissions

chown Change file owner and group

chroot Run a command with a different root directory

chkconfig System services (runlevel)

cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts

clear Clear terminal screen

cmp Compare two files

comm Compare two sorted files line by line

command Run a command - ignoring shell functions •

continue Resume the next iteration of a loop •

cp Copy one or more files to another location

cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands

crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time

csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces

cut Divide a file into several parts


date Display or change the date & time

dc Desk Calculator

dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records

ddrescue Data recovery tool

declare Declare variables and give them attributes •

df Display free disk space

diff Display the differences between two files

diff3 Show differences among three files

dig DNS lookup

dir Briefly list directory contents

dircolors Colour setup for `ls'

dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path

dirs Display list of remembered directories

dmesg Print kernel & driver messages

du Estimate file space usage


echo Display message on screen •

egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression

eject Eject removable media

enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands •

env Environment variables

ethtool Ethernet card settings

eval Evaluate several commands/arguments

exec Execute a command

exit Exit the shell

expect Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal

expand Convert tabs to spaces

export Set an environment variable

expr Evaluate expressions


false Do nothing, unsuccessfully

fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk

fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux

fg Send job to foreground

fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string

file Determine file type

find Search for files that meet a desired criteria

fmt Reformat paragraph text

fold Wrap text to fit a specified width.

for Expand words, and execute commands

format Format disks or tapes

free Display memory usage

fsck File system consistency check and repair

ftp File Transfer Protocol

function Define Function Macros

fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file


gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)

getopts Parse positional parameters

grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern

groupadd Add a user security group

groupdel Delete a group

groupmod Modify a group

groups Print group names a user is in

gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)


hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument

head Output the first part of file(s)

help Display help for a built-in command •

history Command History

hostname Print or set system name


iconv Convert the character set of a file

id Print user and group id's

if Conditionally perform a command

ifconfig Configure a network interface

ifdown Stop a network interface

ifup Start a network interface up

import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file

install Copy files and set attributes


jobs List active jobs •

join Join lines on a common field


kill Kill a process by specifying its PID

killall Kill processes by name


less Display output one screen at a time

let Perform arithmetic on shell variables •

link Create a link to a file

ln Create a symbolic link to a file

local Create variables •

locate Find files

logname Print current login name

logout Exit a login shell •

look Display lines beginning with a given string

lpc Line printer control program

lpr Off line print

lprint Print a file

lprintd Abort a print job

lprintq List the print queue

lprm Remove jobs from the print queue

ls List information about file(s)

lsof List open files


make Recompile a group of programs

man Help manual

mkdir Create new folder(s)

mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)

mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem

mknod Make block or character special files

more Display output one screen at a time

most Browse or page through a text file

mount Mount a file system

mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files

mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)

mv Move or rename files or directories

mmv Mass Move and rename (files)


netstat Networking information

nice Set the priority of a command or job

nl Number lines and write files

nohup Run a command immune to hangups

notify-send Send desktop notifications

nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively


open Open a file in its default application

op Operator access


passwd Modify a user password

paste Merge lines of files

pathchk Check file name portability

ping Test a network connection

pkill Kill processes by a full or partial name.

popd Restore the previous value of the current directory

pr Prepare files for printing

printcap Printer capability database

printenv Print environment variables

printf Format and print data •

ps Process status

pushd Save and then change the current directory

pv Monitor the progress of data through a pipe

pwd Print Working Directory


quota Display disk usage and limits

quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage

quotactl Set disk quotas


ram ram disk device

rar Archive files with compression

rcp Copy files between two machines

read Read a line from standard input •

readarray Read from stdin into an array variable •

readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly

reboot Reboot the system

rename Rename files

renice Alter priority of running processes

remsync Synchronize remote files via email

return Exit a shell function

rev Reverse lines of a file

rm Remove files

rmdir Remove folder(s)

rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)


screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh

scp Secure copy (remote file copy)

sdiff Merge two files interactively

sed Stream Editor

select Accept keyboard input

seq Print numeric sequences

set Manipulate shell variables and functions

sftp Secure File Transfer Program

shift Shift positional parameters

shopt Shell Options

shutdown Shutdown or restart linux

sleep Delay for a specified time

slocate Find files

sort Sort text files

source Run commands from a file '.'

split Split a file into fixed-size pieces

ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)

stat Display file or file system status

strace Trace system calls and signals

su Substitute user identity

sudo Execute a command as another user

sum Print a checksum for a file

suspend Suspend execution of this shell •

sync Synchronize data on disk with memory


tail Output the last part of file

tar Store, list or extract files in an archive

tee Redirect output to multiple files

test Evaluate a conditional expression

time Measure Program running time

timeout Run a command with a time limit

times User and system times

touch Change file timestamps

top List processes running on the system

tput Set terminal-dependent capabilities, color, position

traceroute Trace Route to Host

trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)

tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters

true Do nothing, successfully

tsort Topological sort

tty Print filename of terminal on stdin

type Describe a command •


ulimit Limit user resources •

umask Users file creation mask

umount Unmount a device

unalias Remove an alias •

uname Print system information

unexpand Convert spaces to tabs

uniq Uniquify files

units Convert units from one scale to another

unrar Extract files from a rar archive

unset Remove variable or function names

unshar Unpack shell archive scripts

until Execute commands (until error)

uptime Show uptime

useradd Create new user account

userdel Delete a user account

usermod Modify user account

users List users currently logged in

uuencode Encode a binary file

uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode


v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')

vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')

vi Text Editor

vmstat Report virtual memory statistics


wait Wait for a process to complete •

watch Execute/display a program periodically

wc Print byte, word, and line counts

whereis Search the user's $path, man pages and source files for a program

which Search the user's $path for a program file

while Execute commands

who Print all usernames currently logged in

whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un')

wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP

write Send a message to another user


xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)

xdg-open Open a file or URL in the user's preferred application.

yes Print a string until interrupted

zip Package and compress (archive) files.

. Run a command script in the current shell

!! Run the last command again

### Comment / Remark

Commands marked • are bash built-ins

Many commands particularly the Core Utils are also available under alternate shells (C shell, Korn shell etc).

Speed Up Your Slow Computer. You May Not Need to Buy a New Computer! Honolulu Hawaii and all of Oahu Text or Call Computer Tutor and Troubleshooter J. Richard Kirkham B.Sc. 808.224.1870 English Speaking Mainland U.S.A. Text Only for Remote Computer Help Due to Time Differences

Why is my computer running so slow? It could be a lot of reasons, but 99% of the time a slow computer is software-related. That means you don't need a new computer.

There Could be a LOT of Reasons Why Your Computer is Running Slow.

  • Too many tracking cookies and temporary files will eventually slow down your computer

  • Unwanted programs loading as a service and on startup will slow down your computer

  • Your hard drive is going bad will usually slow down your computer before it crashes

  • Not enough RAM will slow down your computer if you begin running programs that use a lot of resources

Too many tracking cookies and temporary files will eventually slow down your computer

Tracking cookies basically read your internet history. Have you ever noticed if you search for airline tickets after a few websites you start seeing ads for airline tickets? That's what the tracking cookies are doing.

Temporary internet files are little bits of information websites download into your computer. Have you ever noticed when you visit a website for the second time it loads faster? That's what the temp files do. The website basically looks for local information first so it doesn't have to load over the internet thereby speeding up the process of loading the web page.

The slowing down of your computer begins when you get too many temporary internet files and tracking cookies. Each time you visit a website it goes through all the tracking cookies and temp files first before loading.

The backup program I wrote

Is the only one I've seen that removes temporary internet files and cookies before backing up your important files and photos. Helping you to prepare for that day WHEN NOT IF your computer crashes while helping to speed up your computer at the same time.

Unwanted programs loading as a service and on startup will slow down your computer

It seems every program you have wants to load either as a service or on start. If it a program loads as a service that means it's loading before you login. If it loads on start the program loads after you login to your Windows desktop. These programs take up memory (RAM) which is used to run your apps, videos and even operating system (Windows 10, 11 Apple or Linux).

In Windows, you can stop these programs from loading using msconfig, but make sure you know what you're doing in there so you don't turn off something you need. I can help you with that either remotely or, if you're on Oahu, as a house call.

Your hard drive is going bad will usually slow down your computer before it crashes

Your hard drive is what stores your data and your operating system. When, again not if, that crashes you may lose your work files and photos. You have no idea how often I've gotten those sad puppy dog looks from in home computer clients here in Honolulu Hawaii as they explain to me their crashed hard drive has all of their grandkids' irreplaceable unbacked up photos. No pressure right? 99% of the time I'm able to recover their work files and photos for them.

This is especially true for older computers that have hard drives not SSDs. SSD stands for Solid State Drive. They have no moving parts and are faster and more stable than the older hard drives. Here's an . article on how I did a little outside the box thinking and sped up an old Windows 7 computer. Pay close attention to the type of SSD I used.

Buy Deliver Setup and Tutor Computer Service

After recovering my in home computer client's files and photos, they may use my unique Buy Deliver Setup Tutor Service. To my knowledge I'm the only in home computer tutor on Oahu that will actually interview my client, then based on your answers buy a computer for them (I am reiburssed with cash no checks), set it up and give my in home client computer lessons.

Whether I Replace the Hard Drive with an SSD or Setup a New Computer

I always setup Google Drive Backup and Sync. Now called Google Drive Desktop, . This service backs up (actually syncs) your computer files and photos with the Google Drive cloud. This has saved more files and photos of more clients than I can count.

Not enough RAM will slow down your computer if you begin running programs that use a lot of resources

These small computers and full operating system tablets, especially the Surface Tablets are very popular.

RAM stands for Random Access Memory. RAM is different from hard drive memory or storage space. RAM is used to run your programs, videos, which are also run off of programs, your internet browser such as Google Chrome (yes it's also a program) and even the OS (Operating System) itself which is Windows, Apple or Linux.

Okay Rick, So What Happens When I Don't Have Enough RAM?

The program has to wait for RAM to be freed up. A common example of this is buffering when you're watching Netflix or YouTube. That circle you see instead of the video playing is buffering. Other problems, such as slow internet speed or narrow bandwidth can also cause buffering, but we'll focus on RAM.

There Are 3 Solutions to Not Having Enough RAM

  • Remove programs that automatically load with when your computer starts. This also leads to a slow load time of your operating system as well.

  • Add more physical RAM chips to your computer if your computer is capable of taking more.

Most computer ITs would stop here, but no one ever accused me of thinking inside the box. So there is a third solution.

  • Install a different operating system that doesn't take up as many resources as Windows and Apple.

A Different Operating System to Speed Up Your Computer?Sounds Hard to Learn.

Actually Linux Mint looks an awful like like Windows. However, Linux is much more secure and doesn't take up as many resources. Thus freeing up those same resources Windows would use, so you can use the RAM to run programs instead of the operating system. If you read my article on how I did a little outside the box thinking and sped up an old Windows 7 computer, You'll notice I told my computer client he didn't need more RAM because I installed Linux Mint.

I've Switch Over Several Clients to Linux Mint and THEY LOVE IT!

I've switched some in home computer clients from Windows right into Linux Mint from out of the box of a new computer. People spend most of their time online. Once you get into Google Chrome everything is the same as Windows and Apple.

One condo manager was calling me about every 10 days

90% of the problems were due to bad Microsoft updates. The final straw was not being able to use the printer for an important meeting due to a Microsoft Windows update. I backed up all his files and installed Linux Mint. I didn't hear from him for a month and a half and that was just for a question. I saved my client a lot of frustration and money.

If You Want to Install Linux Mint Yourself

The above link leads to a page where you can order a Linux Mint USB drive and directions. It also happens to be an Amazon affiliate link which helps to support my efforts in bringing you information such as this. I thank you for your support.

If you're in Honolulu Hawaii or anywhere on Oahu you're better off Texting me, Rick Kirkham, or calling 808.224.1870 to check my availability.

Contact Me for an Appointment

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BEFORE the computer crashes. If you're in Honolulu Hawaii or anywhere on Oahu Text me, Rick Kirkham, or call 808.224.1870 to check my availability. Text only if you're on the mainland U.S.A. due to time differences.

Tuition and Rates

Help is Now Available for Google Drive The Microsoft Office 365 Replacement and Gmail by Remote Computer Tutor and Troubleshooter J. Richard Kirkham B.Sc.

After helping my second remote computer client in the U.S.A. in a row with Google Drive I am making this an official service. As one of the best computer tutors in Honolulu Hawaii covering all of Oahu with house calls, I am now available for the mainland U.S.A. remotely. Text only due to time differences. You and I will make arrangements for a consultation phone call through texting don’t worry. 808.224.1870. Normal charges for texting apply. Hawaii is part of the United States. 808.224.1870

What is Google Drive?

You saw me refer to Google Drive as a Microsoft Office 365 Replacement. Google Drive is a lot more than that and more flexible than Microsoft Office 365. It’s almost impossible for Google Drive to crash, yet we saw just a few days ago Microsoft sent an update which caused its own programs to stop working. Problems continue with Microsoft’s online services and people are beginning to turn their heads toward other office suite and cloud services.

Google Drive Is:

  • A Microsoft compatible office suite

  • A free backup and sync service

  • A cloud storage service offering 15gb (that’s a lot) of online storage

  • A file sharing service

  • A PDF reader

  • A PDF editor using a Google Drive app.

  • A video player

  • A multi-computer and device syncer

  • Draw and import pictures in its Paint like program

  • Through its wide range of apps most of which are free ALMOST ANYTHING ELSE!

What is Gmail?

Where have you been? Just kidding. Gmail is an online email service by Google. The service is free. I was around when Google started this by offering an unheard of at that time gigabyte of email space. At the time I was using Yahoo mail. I woke up to discover my storage capacity in Yahoo had tripled. I looked around Yahoo to make sure I didn’t pay for something I didn’t need. Later a search showed me it was the response to Gmail being born.

  • Gmail can be set up to receive all your emails from all your accounts AND keep them separate when you reply.

  • Gmail attachments can be viewed or saved directly to Google Drive.

  • Gmail attachments stay with the email even when replying

  • Gmail is independent of your ISP (Internet Service Provider). That means when your ISP changes your Gmail address will remain the same.

  • Google Workspace can be set up to manage your email for multiple users in your company.

Now Don’t Get Nervous About The Cloud

I can practically feel the concern of some of my beginning in home computer tutoring clients here on Oahu.

“It’s in something called the cloud. I want it on my computer. I want it printed out.“

It’s okay don’t worry. By using Google Drive’s backup and sync program, now called Google Desktop, we can have everything on your computer as well as having it backed for WHEN not if you’re computer crashes or your hard drive that stores your photos and work files goes bad.

By using the cloud we’re actually protecting your important family photos and work files.

How Much Does Google Drive Cost?

Google Drive is FREE! Up to 15GB of storage space which includes Gmail so be aware of that. 15GB (gigabytes) is more than most people need for backup and cloud storage. Being the power user that I am I’m paying a whole $5.00 per month for 200GB of storage space in Google Drive’s cloud.

I sync three of my computers using Google Drive Backup and Sync and can access my files on any computer or device I wish. I don’t have to be at a particular computer to get a particular file.

What Can You Teach Me Rick?

Anything from setting up your Google account all the way to selecting the correct program to edit a project on which you’re working. Interestingly enough I recently showed a basic computer user who's a contractor how to access his own computer files in Google Drive so he could use the free application he needed to edit his document. I was even able to help him remotely. A service I offer for all English speaking people on the mainland U.S.A..

How Much Do You Charge Rick?

I usually have people pay two hours in advance for computer troubleshooting, but sometimes I only need 15 minutes to show someone how to accomplish his/her task in Google Drive. So I charge $95.00 per hour in 15 minute increments. If you’re a beginner or haven’t begun a task yet I highly recommend you sign up for an hour.

Remote Computer Help 15 minute intervals

Your Time is Your Money

People sometimes spend an entire day trying to figure out a Gmail or Google Drive feature. When they finally contact me 808.224.1870 (text only please mainland U.S.A.) I usually show them what they need within 15 minutes. Make more money throughout the day with your business, help more of your clients by contacting me right away.

Rick Kirkham

Text 808.224.1870

This Little Box Turns Your HDTV into a Windows 10/11 Computer! by in home and remote computer cell phone and tablet tutor and troubleshooter J. Richard Kirkham B.Sc. covering Honolulu Hawaii and all of Oahu and remotely for the English speaking U.S.A. Text or call 808.224.1870

This is so cool. I installed this little box for an in home computer client here in Honolulu Hawaii and turned his HDTV into a Windows 10 computer! Read my review....

Setup Was Pretty Standard for the Mele Fanless Mini PC also called a PC Stick

If you've setup Windows before you can set up the Intel PC Stick. If you haven't and your on Oahu I'll make a housecall and do it for you..

Features I Found on The Mele Fanless Mini PC also called a PC Stick

I liked it! I don't see new things very often doing what I do, but this is perfect for an end computer user that needs a big screen and has little space.

The pc stick fit right in my hand. I'd say was about six inches long and 2.5 inches across. That's without looking at the specs.

It had two usb ports.

I used one of those usb ports to plug in a wireless keyboard and wireless mouse. When you buy a wireless mouse and keyboard together you general only need one usb adapter to plug into the computer.

An Ethernet Port

Hold on let me explain what an ethernet port is. An ethernet port is a port you'll find on desktop computers and still some laptops that allow you plug in cable internet. I was happily surprised to see this feature on such a small computer.

The PC Stick Plugs Into an HDMI Port

The Mele Fanless Mini PC even comes with an HDMI cord in case of tight fits. The HDMI port is what you plug the PC stick into in order for the HDTV to act as a giant monitor. The giant monitor makes this perfect for senior citizens and other people with vision challenges.

I personally have two senior citizen in-home computer tutoring clients with macular degeneration. The larger screen makes it easy to see the text and images. Computer users with full size computers with vision problems do not give up hope. I selected This computer monitor for one of my vision challenged computer tutoring clients.

The Mele Fanless Mini PC Comes with a Power Cord

I was surprised a USB power option wasn't available, but plug your power cord into the small slot of your PC Stick which is a USB C port. Then plug the other end into any regular electric socket or better yet, a surge protected power strip

Storage for The PC Stick

It will hold around 128GB of files, photos and videos. However, I suggest doing most of your work in Google Drive. Don't worry, I can help you with your Gmail and Google Drive. This computer along with all other computers and devices will eventually crash. If you have your work and photos stored in the cloud (Google Drive), they'll be safe from the pending crash.

Options When Your Purchase The Mele Fanless Mini PC

Your basic option is 4 GB of RAM or 8 GB of RAM. RAM stands for Random Access Memory. It's the memory used to run both your programs, games, videos while at the same time running the operating system (Windows 10 or 11) itself.

If you're just going to check email and surf the internet 4 GB is fine. Games and videos I highly recommend 8 GB of RAM. If you're going to use your PC Stick for business I also suggest 8 GB of RAM.

How I Got Into The Computer from The Remote

Make sure the PC Stick is turned on. It's a rectangular button along the side. It's hard to see but you can tell it's a button due to line surrounding the button so it can be pushed down.

Every remote and HDTV is going to be different. In this case I used the back out button, which looks like a half-circle with an arrow pointed left, to take me out of the TV menu straight into Windows. Believe me when I tell you, the TV manufacturers do not want thing to be difficult to use. They want you to keep buying them and recommending them.

Thanks Rick But My HDTV Already Has Internet Browsing Capabilities

So does my in home computer tutoring client's! However he wanted to sign up for an online class and the browser built into the HDTV was not supported!

My Recommendation?

The Mele Fanless Mini PC also called a PC Stick

is perfect for any person or business who needs to sav space and the advantage of a full computer operating system. The big HDTV screen is perfect for senior citizens and anyone else with vision challenges.

I went into settings and made everything larger, text and images, for at least two of my senior citizen in home computer tutoring clients here on Oahu.

I highly recommend The Mele Fanless Mini PC also called a PC Stick

For Lessons Contact

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In Home, Onsite and Remote Cell Phone Tablet and Computer Lessons Training and Troubleshooting for Businesses and Senior Citizens For Honolulu Hawaii and All of Oahu Text me, Rick Kirkham, 808.224.1870 to check my availability.

Mainland U.S.A. Text Only for Remote Lessons and Troubleshooting Due to Time Differences

Want to support my efforts?

Some of these links may be affiliate links which give me a small commission when you purchase. They cost you nothing to click on and check out and nothing extra when you order.

Thank you for your support!